Hopefully this will get updated one day- Flash crashed 3 times, the third time wiping out my previous 2 hard saves.
In 543 we were to create an image of a Community of Practice or Professional Learning Network so what I tried to show are tweets, IMing, uploading to VoiceThread, Blogger, or SlideShare. I don’t know what Flash killed- much of the animations to illustrate uploading were destroyed in the last crash. One day I will have to fix this, especially if I want it to be a part of my portfolio.
This was fun because I needed to create a mini-lesson for a student I’ve been working with in my day job. I decided to create a short lesson on the equations used for solving pH and pOH problems so she could get through that part of the unit. Now that I am learning in the EDTECH program how to spice things up, I added a little flair, but was very careful to not have audio conflict too much with written words. After the first slide I made a separate button for the viewer to click if they want to hear an explanation. I felt like I was creating the narration that accompanies museum walking tours. I leave it up to the listener to decide if they want to listen or not. For students who are in an area where sound would be a problem, there is enough on the slide for them to be able to think about what they are being shown. The Articulate Storyline player also has a mute button so if they are not allowed to listen to the first slide, they can at least watch what goes on in the slide. Only the first slide has automatic narration. I also have much of the problem solving demonstrations enter in steps so that the student is aware there are steps to solving the problems. Answers do not just magically appear.
I put the video up at my website because I want people to be able to interact with it. I don’t know what is happening with our stuff on the EDTECH servers, especially when we graduate, so I might as well put this up at Embrace Challenge now. http://www.embracechallenge.net/513/FinalProject/story.swf That was the link to the shockwave file. It is also available in HTML5 because Articulate is just that cool. WordPress, however is not, so I put in the long url to the swf and there is another shorter link that will hopefully take you to the presentation. My student was so cute- I had her use this the day after I made it and she said I could make money doing this. Little does she know what really amazing tutorials are already out there. I’ll be happy if somehow these can be accessible to my students.
Posted in 1.1 Instructional Systems Design, 1.1.2 Designing stuff, 1.1.3 Develloping products, 1.1.4 Implementing what was created, 1.2 Message Design, 1.3 Instructional Strategies, 1.4 Learner characteristics, 2.2 Audiovisual Technologies, 2.3 Computer-Based Technologies, 2.4 Integrated Technologies, 3.1 Media Utilization, 3.2 Diffusion of Innovations, 4.3 Delivery System Management, 4.4 Information Management, 5.3 Formative and Summative Evaluation, AECT Standards, EDTECH 513, Standard 1: DESIGN, Standard 2: DEVELOPMENT, Standard 3: UTILIZATION, Standard 4: MANAGEMENT, Standard 5: Evaluation
Although not every image matches my words as well as I would like it to, nor are all of the images impeccable, however, this did not turn out all that bad. I put it up at YouTube in a private setting so I think you need the URL: http://youtu.be/_53VpDysmPo to see it. This was quite an interesting assignment because it took several different drafts and many hours to decide what to say. My first “drafts” were about 20 minutes long which is not what I wanted to create. I spent many hours scanning paper photos to make them digital and am glad I had the means to do that. Although my final story is as simple as I could make it, I did get to include on image among the ones I found that my mom has already passed along to me.
I did not get to go in depth about why I have the personality I have, which was one of my original goals, but I think I was able to express enough for people to get an idea of my neuroses and obsessions. I did not get to elaborate how I never expected to see 40 until it happened because my genetic father died when he was 39 and 3 days old. It would have taken too long to include that history so I’ll mention it here. It is because he died when I was 7 and the impact it had on me that I led the path I chose until the last time I left the classroom. I was 41 in 2010 when I left the rooms with tables and chairs for the second time, and will probably be the last one. Every day after age 40 is truly a gift and It is pretty neat how I get to live a life I did not spend years planning, like I did in my first 40. I just get the benefits from the crap I did in the first 40 so that my next chapters are not as difficult as they could be.
Yes, I am aware I broke rules of Multimedia Design, but I HAD to put labels on some of the images even though I am talking and telling my story simultaneously.
I hope you enjoy my story and don’t find it 5 minutes of boring rhetoric. Enjoy!
Posted in 1.1 Instructional Systems Design, 1.1.1 Analying, 1.1.3 Develloping products, 1.1.4 Implementing what was created, 1.2 Message Design, 1.3 Instructional Strategies, 1.4 Learner characteristics, 2.2 Audiovisual Technologies, 2.3 Computer-Based Technologies, 2.4 Integrated Technologies, 3.1 Media Utilization, 4.1 Project Management, 4.2 Resource Management, 4.3 Delivery System Management, EDTECH 513, Standard 1: DESIGN, Standard 2: DEVELOPMENT, Standard 3: UTILIZATION
Chapter 8 of the text is on applications of the Coherence Principle. The coherence principle says, “you should avoid adding any material that does not support the instructional goal” (Clark & Mayer, 2010, p. 151). Each of the other Multimedia Learning Principles complement the Coherence Principle. The Coherence Principle comes from cognitive theory that asserts too much extraneous information in a presentation is detrimental to the learner. Just as we do not want to overwhelm the eyes or ears with too much simultaneous stimulus, we don’t want to even accent our presentations with cutesy images or novel sounds. The emphasis here is on accent, not on the actual content. We can still use relevant sound and words simultaneously, especially if it is someone reading the words on the screen. What Mayer is discouraging are sound effects that one might add to a presentation because the writer assumes the additional sound will help place the content in the viewer’s memory. In contrast, this extra sound may be distracting and cause the viewer to miss something that s/he should have stored in the brain. Either content that should have been acquired was not, or what was acquired got jumbled in the storage process.
Another reason offering what may seem like random images or noises for the learner to process has a negative impact on learning is that the wrong prior knowledge may be triggered. I had never thought about there possibly being wrong prior knowledge. I routinely hear how we are supposed to connect the current lesson to prior knowledge so the new stuff has something to attach to. The idea being prior knowledge is the scaffold and the new stuff needs to find a niche in which to reside. How can there be bad prior knowledge? Could it be a picture is used to accent a lesson, but it does not actually have to be there for the lesson to be effective, however because it is there, the students’ attention is focused on something irrelevant to the topic they are supposed to learn. For example, what if a puppy is used to point out something and this causes the student to spend time thinking about how much they miss their puppy instead of the content the puppy has pointed out? I suppose in this case the wrong kind of prior knowledge could be triggered.
I recently went through training where every visual instruction was accompanied by an audio version that went at a pace that could match the speed with which I was reading the words.
For an unsuccessful attempt:
In the past, I have worked with students of all ages in a scripted curriculum that was originally designed to be in books. It is now on a computer screen. They have not changed all of the formatting on the computer screen so that it can behave with the advantages of being on a computer screen. The curriculum is very poorly organized and sometimes they use images in locations to accent the lesson, but the images have nothing to do with the lesson. I’m thinking about one lesson that is about specific letters of the alphabet and in the middle of one section there is an artistic alphabet. I would say 9/10 students who do that lesson think the image is to be used to answer the question. It is not supposed to be used for the answer; it is not a part of the question. Students waste time trying to decipher the artwork instead of focusing on what the lesson is trying to teach them. This is an example of when a learning environment would be better served by having less clutter on the page.
Discuss the relationship of the Coherence Principle to other Multimedia Learning Principles examined thus far in your readings.
Both of this week’s articles, as well as our textbook, elaborate on Multimedia Leaning Principles (Clark & Mayer, 2010; Mayer, 1999; Moreno & Mayer, 2000). The articles have mini-explanations of some of the principles Clark and Mayer included in their book such as: The Split-Attention Principle, The Modality Principle, The Redundancy Principle, the Spatial Contiguity Principle, and the Temporal Contiguity Principle.
The Split-Attention Principle: “Students learn better when the instructional material does not require them to split their attention between multiple sources of mutually referring information” (Moreno & Mayer, 2000). What this means is if there is an image and you want students to read things on the image, don’t have sound that is going to distract them. If you are going to have a vocal explanation, don’t clutter the image with written words that will compete with the audio file.
The Modality Principle: “Students learn better when the verbal information is presented auditorily as speech rather than visually as on-screen text both for concurrent and sequential presentations” (Moreno & Mayer, 2000). This is similar to the split-attention principle because it is talking about having the learners’ attention being overtaxed by too much information at once. The Coherence Principle stresses keeping out stuff that may interfere with the learning. Here it means that you want to let the student focus on one input at a time unless they can complement each other. Allow the students to hear words while they watch an animation the words are explaining. Don’t ask students to read words at the same time they should be watching an animation.
The Redundancy Principle: “Students learn better from animation and narration than from animation, narration, and text if the visual information is presented simultaneously to the verbal information” (Moreno & Mayer, 2000). Again this is strongly aligned with the Coherence Principle- the redundant information, the extra stuff that does not have to be presented, should not be included. It is overkill to have animation, narration, and text to complement the narration happening all at the same time. Like with the modality principle- allow the words to exist as auditory input instead of visual input.
The Spatial Contiguity Principle: “Students learn better when on-screen text and visual materials are physically integrated rather than separated” (Moreno & Mayer, 2000). If there is text to go with a visual image, put them close together. Don’t make the students have to track all over the page to find the key that goes with the chart or the labels to go with a diagram. Put items of the same context within easy visual range of each other. If the students have to shift their attention away from the image to go hunting for words, there is a chance they will forget what they are looking for while they are looking for the words. Likewise, if they have to search for the image to show what the words are explaining, they may forget what they are looking for or they may find the wrong image and therefore really mix up what they were supposed to figure out from the multimedia presentation.
The Temporal Contiguity Principle: “Students learn better when verbal and visual materials are temporally synchronized rather than separated in time” (Moreno & Mayer, 2000). Line up the closed captioning to match the words as they are spoken. Align the animation and the narration so that the narration is actually about what the students are watching on the screen at the time they are watching it. (Note: having closed captioning and audio files running simultaneously violates the redundancy principle, but if you must have both happening, then do make sure they are aligned in time.)
Theories relating to the Coherence Principle include dual coding theory, cognitive load theory, and constructivist learning theory. Both Clark and Mayer ,and Moreno and Mayer elaborate on how learners have limited means of grasping information. We have essentially two routes by which information can enter our brains: through our ears and through our eyes. The dual coding theory emphasizes the idea that auditory and visual information get stored in different parts of memory. We will first gather the information through the eyes and ears where it is put into sensory memory- one spot for the eyes, another for the ears. We have two locations for our initial memories that we get through two separate input channels, one verbal, the other not, thus dual load. Ideally the transition into working memory will happen and eventually some may migrate into long term memory. The cognitive load theory concerns what makes it into working memory. In working memory, we organize the information. We take the words we saw and/or heard and blend it with the images we saw to make meaning of the information.
There is a limit on how much we can store in working memory, the cognitive load, and to cram as much as we can into working memory and ideally on to long term memory, we have to construct meaning from what information we acquire (Moreno & Mayer, 2000). The constructivist learning theory covers situations where students take ownership of the information and tailor it to their own understanding of what it means. When gathering information, we want students to be able to do more with it than merely recite it back to us. We want them to make connections between what we have taught them and their prior knowledge, what they knew before they met us.
What do you personally like or dislike about this principle? Present a coherent, informed opinion and explain why you hold this opinion. Are there any limitations or qualifications of the principle (caveats) which the authors did not consider and, if so, what are they?
I am actually torn by the Coherence Principle’s stress on having relatively naked courseware and presentations. I think, though, that one thing being stressed in the book, the video that was shown in the news post for week 11, and the two articles we were asked to read, is that the “less is more” principle applies to the actual content delivery, not the content housing. By this I mean the structure of the LMS may not fall into the realm of what is covered by the Coherence Principle. If it does, then I disagree with some of it based on personal experience.
Specifically I am talking about how courses are structured in the LMS. I will use Moodle as my example because that is the format with which I am most familiar. Before taking classes with Boise State, I took a few through a CA community college online that were about teaching online. Many of our assignments involved us creating lessons in our own Moodle shell. One thing my professor, Alexis, stressed was using graphics to accent our structure. We were continuously told to find legal images we can put with each lesson section. Now we built our courses differently than how they are done here. We actually put the content in the front page and included all of the important links for each topic section. Each topic section had its own unique image or link to a video that was about that topic. For example, in 513, the week 11 topic area which is organized by date, April 1 – April 8, has a blue icon image that matches all of the other icon images in the topic headers for the course. They are so generic, they fade into the background and do not distract from any of the content on the page. This is consistent with how Mayer would want images to be- seen but not noticed. The way I learned to set up courses before Boise State is that the video we found in this week’s news announcement would be what is in our topic area header. That video would be embedded into the front page in the area for this week’s topic. Ideally the embed code would be set so that the video does not automatically start when the page loads. Or perhaps an image of the video would load, but not the actual video, so that it does not take too long for the entire front page to load.
I think my point is that I was taught to spice up the front page of the course with graphics, images, embedded videos, or other things that were not pure text. It seems like the philosophy here at Boise State is to do linear text that is akin to webpages. I am not a fan of it because of the experience I’ve had with the Moodle book plug-in. I love the Moodle book plug-in, but I don’t think it has been upgraded to work seamlessly with Moodle 2.3. It is from the days of Moodle 1.9. The way the courses are structured at BSU are actually difficult for me to deal with because of my learning issues. Now that I’ve been doing this for about two years, I am used to how things are structured. I don’t like it, but I’ve figured out how to adapt.
I like having the added junk in the courses I take, especially if it helps me discern one topic from another. I am oblivious to the obvious. I overlook things that other people pick up on immediately. I have monocular double vision so I tend to gloss over lots of things unless I have to really focus and give it my attention. For people like me, having a large obnoxious image or video indicating what my topic is about actually helps ground me in my physical location in a course.
The coherence principle, however, has not emphasized course structures as much as it emphasizes the actual learning parts. It wants us to highly monitor what we present to learners at the time they are supposed to be learning content. In that respect, I am in complete agreement with the evidence Mayer has presented in his papers and the chapter.
Clark, R. C., & Mayer, R. E. (2010). E-learning and the science of instruction, 3rd edition. Pfeiffer: San Francisco, CA.
Mayer, R. E. (1999). Multimedia aids to problem- solving transfer. International Journal of Education Research. 31 (7), 611-623.
Moreno, R., & Mayer, R. E. (2000). A learner-centered approach to multimedia explanations: Deriving instructional design principles from cognitive theory. Interactive Multimedia Electronic Journal of Computer-Enhanced Learning, 2(2), 2004-07.
I’m taking 513 this semester and am loving it! Diane has us doing projects that are taking me just a little further than where I was before starting the Boise State EDTECH program and it is perfect. I’ve done plenty of audio files in the past, but I’ve never tried to emulate an actual podcast series. For the last several months I’ve been contemplating writing a book on my trials and tribulations for getting teaching credentials in various states. Until about 3 weeks ago, I was not seeing any benefit to having a credential in 13 states because nobody wanted to hire me. I figured I am putting all this money into catering to all of these states, somehow I had better get back the money I put in. I was keeping track of everything I spent at first, but more recently I’ve become a slacker and I’m not logging every envelope to each state or all of the fingerprint charges.
Something good has to come of my having gone though all of the hoops for various states. If I can figure out how to do a RSS feed from my website, I may pursue how to get someone to advertise in my podcasts like some of the commercial ones that can be downloaded at iTunes. Until Diane had us examine podcast architecture, I had not realized that there are advertisements wrapped in some podcasts. Maybe instead of self-publishing a book at Amazon, I will self-publish podcasts on my adventures on becoming a US-wide educator.
Given all this talk of the podcast I created, I should provide a link to it. Podcast on States’ Rights in Education: Arizona I also read from a script, so here is a transcript of the podcast. I hope you enjoy the podcast. This is one of the better assignments I have been asked to do in the program. There were no tears with this one and I was able to use what I learned while planning and making the podcast to figure out how I’m going to clear my credential in Arizona. Win-Win!
Posted in 1.1.1 Analying, 1.1.2 Designing stuff, 1.1.3 Develloping products, 1.2 Message Design, 2.2 Audiovisual Technologies, 2.3 Computer-Based Technologies, 3.1 Media Utilization, 4.3 Delivery System Management, EDTECH 513
This is a link to the presentation that can be downloaded to your computer.
I tried several ways to get the presentation to embed. Even using the text box with WordPress did not work. Google gave me the embed code, but WordPress is too protective. I thought about putting it in a text box, but those have to be permanently located in a sidebar or the footer. Clicking on the link launches the presentation. You can view the notes or just the slides.
Update Feb 23, 2013:
I wish I could remember where I read about this technique so I could properly credit the person. This is an image I uploaded and chose to use a “custom URL”. The custom URL is the address of the presentation. I was not able to tell it to open in a new tab so it will wipe out my learning log if you click on the image below. So for those of us who have not figured out how to embed a Google Doc, take a screenshot of it, or use any image you like, upload the image and attach a custom URL to it. It works. Woo hoo!